More than an Apparition: A Little Intro to Our Lady of Guadalupe

Written by H.R.R. Gorman

Chemical engineer seeking out new adventures in science and speculative fiction.

March 30, 2021

One day, back when we lived in California, I went to Catholic church with my spouse (I’m Baptist, so I have an excuse not to go all the time). As soon as I walked in the first door, I detected that sweet and yet overpowering scent of roses. Upon entering the second door, the freshness of greenery hit me – even over the scent of the incense – and my eyes feasted upon a mountain of flowers unlike anything I’d ever seen before (and I’ve been to true Southern funerals!). The mountain flowed from the bottom of a painting of the Virgin Mary. From beneath a statue of the Lady’s feet spilled another mountain of lush blooms, and the floral collection tumbled all the way across the dais on which the altar sat.

Being the shocked protestant I was, I leaned over to my husband and asked, “What is THAT?”

“It’s the Feast of Guadalupe. It’s very popular in Mexico.”

From that, I’ve learned a bit more about the feast and the story behind it. So pull up a chair, smell the flowers, and let’s dig in.

A Quick Rundown on Mary, Mariology, and Marian Apparitions

Mary: Mother of God.

If you ask me, that’s a pretty big job, and that should make Mary pretty important to religious folks. There’s not many details about Mary, however, present in the Bible. How do we study someone who, other than the details presented mostly in Luke, has mostly been erased?

The study of Mary is known as “Mariology”. Catholics and Orthodox parishioners include things such as Sacred Tradition and other, post-biblical doctrines as part of the information to be studied as part of Mariology. From this, aspects of Mary and her life have been more fully derived and defined for the faithful. As a protestant, I was most surprised to find out about the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, which is part of Catholic tradition.

Other sources of information are something called Marian Apparitions. These are times that Mary has allegedly appeared to people and sometimes given them help or direction. Through Mary’s continued actions, thoughts on what she supports have also built. These apparitions are often named “Our Lady of [Insert Location Apparition Was Seen Here]”. Our Lady of Fatima, for instance, was seen in Fatima, Spain.

And, most importantly, Our Lady of Guadalupe was seen in Guadalupe, a suburb of Mexico City.

Juan Diego Builds a Church

Our Lady of Guadalupe is based on a series of five apparitions, four to Juan Diego and one to his uncle, Juan Bernadino.

On December 9th, 1531, Juan Diego followed a call coming from Tepeyac hill. Once he reached the site, he discovered a radiant Indian woman dressed in Aztec finery. There the visage told him she was the Mother of God and all humanity, and she ordered him to build a house for her on the site. In order to fulfill her demands, he needed to ask the Bishop for help.

Juan Diego asked Bishop Juan de Zumárraga to build the temple, but he was dismissed. There are a few religious speculations as to why, but what I’ve seen points to a bishop that is ultimately blameless (if wrong). I think it likely that the bishop didn’t pay attention to a poor convert. As a Spanish conquerer, it makes sense the bishop would have (racistly and wrongly) ignored an Indian peasant. The humility, origins, and economic station of Juan Diego makes his story all the more important.

After having failed to obtain Bishop Juan de Zumárraga’s blessing and help, Juan Diego returned to the hill where the Lady told him to try a second time the next day. At the second telling, the Bishop found him bold and wondered why the man insisted a second Marian Apparition has appeared. He demanded a sign that Juan Diego is telling the truth.

Later that night, Juan Diego returned home to find his only family – uncle Juan Bernadino – so sick and ailing that he was surely dying. Juan Diego remained at his uncle’s bedside, caring for him for two days, but the man did not recover. He tells his uncle that he must leave to get a priest to prepare for death.

On his way, he runs into the Lady again. She rebuked him for not having the faith to return to her, but Juan Diego bravely asked her to give him the sign requested by the bishop. She told him to return to Tepeyac hill and pick flowers.

Juan Diego was confused because of the wintery season, but he followed through. At the top of the hill, the Lady of Guadalupe helped him pick the miracle flowers and placed them in his tilma. She told him to bring the flowers to the Bishop.

Upon giving the tilma to the bishop, the flowers tumbled out and reveal the image of the virgin.

The famous Our Lady of Guadalupe image. There is a lot of Aztec and Christian symbolism in each piece. The cloth is, like most Tilmas, made of agave fiber and only has a “shelf life” of 30 days. Careful work has mostly preserved this piece, though bits have been lost. Public Domain, attributed to Mary, Mother of God.

At the same time that Juan Diego showed his faith to the Lady, she appeared to the uncle Juan Bernadino and healed him. After her church is built, it became known for its healing properties.

This last apparition, on December 12th, marks the feast day of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

A Travel Destination and Symbol of Mexico

The tilma (cloak) of Juan Diego was only supposed to last for a short time, but preservation of the image and a combination of miracles means that you can still visit it. While 2020 was of course an aberration due to the pandemic, the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe is otherwise one of the most visited religious sites on the planet (only behind the Meiji temple or the Kashi Vishwanath temple). People travel to this site for healing, to inspect the miraculous cloak, and to celebrate the December 12th feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

The tilma and apparition has come to represent much more than a single set of events that took place during Spanish colonialism. It has come to represent Mexican heritage, social justice, healing, and hope for the poor and indigenous. As Mary appeared to a poor Indian, dressed in both clothes and skin of an Aztec, even the Church has declared her the patron saint of Mexico (even if there was controversy surrounding the authenticity of the story).

In addition to being a symbol for the downtrodden, she has become a symbol, rallying point, and part of Mexico itself. Starting with the war for Mexican independence from Spain, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla encouraged untrained peasants and common people to throw off the Spanish colonists. Because Mary, as the Lady of Guadalupe, symbolized hope and belief in the downtrodden, this helped in his rallying call and brought her image into politics as well as religion.

A painting of Miguel Hidalgo, who led the way to Mexican independence from Spain. He kickstarted his movement by invoking the image of Mary as seen on the famous Tilma. If you look closely at his banner in this painting, you can see the likeness. Public domain, 1905 painting by Antonio Fabrés.

Since then, people of Mexican heritage have carried her image and importance all across the globe. She has seen Mexico through civil wars, popular uprisings, and battles concerning the separation of church and state. White, protestant Americans may not know much about the Lady of Guadalupe beyond her symbolism of Mexico, but she is important throughout all of the Americas and is an essential part of the world.

For More Information

I hope you enjoyed reading this – it ended up WAY longer than I’d intended! I also worry that people probably know more about this than I realize. I did, after all, grow up in a super-sheltered fundamentalist protestant household.

As I was reading up on this, I found that many sites included several details about the story that others did not. The main story in the “Juan Diego Builds a Church” section was my summary that took information from all of these sources. Be careful and discerning – a lot of sources are religious, so they have a certain agenda to fulfill.

From the Franciscan order of Catholics

Official Vatican stuff

Where my spouse looks up really obscure Catholic things

A secular, American article

More Catholic stuff

A blog/article/essay about someone’s personal experiences

And, of course, Wikipedia has a great summary.

About the Author: H.R.R. Gorman is a PhD chemical engineer with expertise in biotechnology and making drugs. Following science, Dr. G’s greatest passions are writing and history. If you want to know more about this white-trash-turned-excessively-bourgeois maniac, you can go to

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  1. OIKOS™-Editorial

    Thank you very much for sharing the information. I enjoyed reading it. Have a beautiful week! Michael

    • H.R.R. Gorman

      No problem! Glad you enjoyed it.

  2. restlessjo

    Belief must be a wonderful thing. Always our Lady is closer to the poor and downtrodden. They certainly need someone. I live in a Catholic country and as Easter approaches I really miss the processions and pageantry that normally accompany it. Maybe next year? One of my favourite celebrations here is in September when our Lady is paraded to bless the boats of the fishing fleet. Simple faith. A very beautiful thing. 🙂 🙂

    • H.R.R. Gorman

      Very cool! I haven’t been to a parade in ages, but I’d bet a procession of a Lady is a sight to see.

  3. Anne Goodwin's next novel is out May 29th

    Enjoyed your essay. I grew up in Catholicism and am still intrigued by the myths I once took as fact. I’d heard of Our Lady of Guadalupe before but I don’t think she figured in my childhood. All our Marys were in Europe.

    • H.R.R. Gorman

      I think it’s interesting how region determines what we know. I’ve known “of” the Lady of Guadalupe since I was very little, but it wasn’t until I was married that I decided to learn more and found out why she was so famous. I probably don’t know as much about the European ladies as y’all do, though!

  4. Norah

    Thanks for this history. Although I have (or had) a book about Mary of Guadalupe, I don’t remember much from it or even if I read it. I was more familiar with the Mary stories which I knew as Our Lady of Fatima and Our Lady of Lourdes, maybe because they were European in origin. The content of a letter from Mary given to the eldest of the three Fatima children, Lucy (I think) was to be revealed at some stage towards the end of last century. I don’t remember ever hearing about it. However, when I now check on Wikipedia, I see that it has been revealed and my memory was not entirely correct.

    • H.R.R. Gorman

      The Our Lady of Fatima statue came to California while we were there. They had a visiting priest come around and give a homily about her and essentially advertise her visit so my husband’s parish would go to the cathedral where she was. So I’d heard the story, but unlike Guadalupe, I’ve not heard it since!

      It’s intriguing how region and nation can affect our perceptions and what we know. The reason I posted this was because I think Mexico is easy for English-speakers to glance over despite its rich culture.

      • Norah

        It is intriguing. There is so much of which I am unaware. I think I need more lives to learn it all. Including about Mexico.

  5. Jules

    Very interesting reading. Thanks.

    • H.R.R. Gorman

      Thank YOU for stopping by!

      • Jules

        My pleasure 😀

  6. Colleen M. Chesebro

    Dr. G. I enjoyed your insight into the Lady of Guadalupe. Years ago, I toured many of the old missions throughout Arizona. This was some new information I didn’t know. Thanks. <3

    • H.R.R. Gorman

      I love new info! I had heard of Our Lady of Guadalupe a long time ago, but I didn’t know who she actually was (beyond Mary) until I got married. I thought it’s probably somewhat rare for English speakers to know much about her, so I wrote it up! Thank you for stopping by.

      • Colleen M. Chesebro

        You’re so welcome. I love the history of the old missions. Not always the best stories about indigenous people but still fascinating. ??

    • H.R.R. Gorman

      No problem! 🙂

  7. Charli Mills

    Having come from the Vaquero culture of old California, this struck a familiar chord of celebrating feasts and looking for Maria’s image and blessing. I had to look up the feast my family used to celebrate, hoping it was to the Lady of Guadalupe but turns out it was a Festa to celebrate the answered prayers of starving Portuguese. I remember the crowning of queens and the feeding of people (lingica). Thanks for this fascinating, in-depth coverage from your perspective. I love your naming for resources, H. — namely, “Where my spouse looks up really obscure Catholic things.”

    • H.R.R. Gorman

      Haha, now that I’m looking at those, I realize it’s 100% worded in pure H fashion.

      And now I’m remembering things about the Vaquero culture and you! Perhaps about REAL avocado toast?

  8. Chel Owens

    “Excessively-bourgeois,” indeed. :D. I knew nothing about any of this, so count me in as a fellow-sheltered Christian.

    • H.R.R. Gorman

      Lol. I shall, I shall indeed…

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